Chandrayaan: India’s Journey to the Moon

In this era of technological advancement, scientists are trying to reach every corner with their capabilities and experience. Every country is trying its best to know everything about space and learn how all these things formed. India is also in this league. For new experiences, India also tried a lot of satellite launches in space under the guidance of ISRO scientists.

Indeed, sometimes these launches fail, but scientists never leave hope and try again. Similarly,in the case of Chandrayaan. India tried twice, but the satellites Chandrayaan 1 and 2 failed due to some errors. So, now to become great in the league, India is going to launch Chandrayaan 3 under the mission of Chandrayaan mission. So, come and let us learn about the journey of these launches to the moon.

Chandrayaan 1

Chandrayaan 1 was the first mission of India to the moon. It was successfully launched on October 22, 2008, from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota. It is the first step to boost India’s space program and explore the moon. The satellite was inserted into the lunar orbit on November 8, 2008, after 17 days of launching. India became the fourth country to do this by placing the flag on the moon. The total cost of this project was ₹386 crores. The spacecraft started orbiting around the moon at a height of 100 km from the surface of the moon. They gave the chemical, mineralogical, and photo-geological mapping of the moon to ISRO.

Chandrayaan - 1
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Objectives of Chandrayaan 1

The mission worked well, and it completed all the major objectives of the mission. These are:

  1. To conduct scientific experiments using the instruments on the spacecraft.
  2. To test the impact of a sub-satellite that is MIP (Moon Impact Probe) on the surface of the moon as a fore-bearer to future projects.
  3. Identification of chemicals on the lunar surface.
  4. Mapping the height variations of the lunar surface.

After achieving those goals, the spacecraft had raised to the height of 200 km in May 2009.

Why Chandrayaan 1 failed?

After a year of its insertion in lunar orbit, the spacecraft started facing technical issues with the system. It included the failure of the star tracker and poor thermal shielding. Due to this, ISRO lost contact with the satellite and lost it on August 29, 2009.

Chandrayaan 2 

After achieving success from Chandryaan 1, ISRO started work on a new project to gain more knowledge on lunar orbit. They named it Chandrayaan 2. It was launched on July 22, 2019, from SDSC, Sriharikota. It consisted of a lunar orbiter and a Pragyan rover. It reached the moon orbit on August 20, 2019, exactly after 29 days. The Chandrayaan 2 mission cost ₹978 crores, which includes ₹603 crores for the orbiter, lander called Vikram, rover, navigation, and ground support network, while the rest ₹375 crores for the heavy GSLV rocket with the indigenous cryogenic engine.

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Objectives of Chandrayaan 2

Chandryaan 2 completed the left work of Chandrayaan 1 and achieved the new objectives. These are:

  1. To provide 3D maps of the lunar surface.
  2. To study lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, the lunar exosphere, and hydroxyl and water ice signatures.
  3. To study the water ice in the south polar region and the thickness of the lunar regolith on the surface.

Why Chandrayaan 2 failed?

Due to some problems and technical issues, the lander Vikram and the rover crashed on the moon’s surface and lost communication with the ISRO ground control center. The Chandrayaan’s Vikramhas to make a spin, which is very hard to make, and failed to do that.

Chandrayaan 3

It is the third attempt to learn more about the moon and gain fame in the Space industry. India will be the fourth country to successfully reach the moon by launching Chandrayaan 3 in 2023. ISRO tried its best to remove all the issues they had faced in Chandrayaan 1 and 2. The launch of Chandrayaan 3 has been scheduled for July 14, 2023, at 2:35 pm IST. It is equipped with a lander, rover, and propulsion module. The total weight of this spacecraft is 3900 kg. The budget of it is under ₹615 crores. It is expected that Chandrayaan 3 will land on the moon on August 23 or 24.

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Objectives of Chandrayaan 3

The following are the major objectives of this project:

  1. Getting a soft and safe landing of the lander on the surface of the moon.
  2. Observing and demonstrating the rover’s capabilities.
  3. In-site scientific observations of various chemical and natural elements, soil, water, etc., on the surface of the moon.

Let us all pray for the best so that the scientists will get the results of their hard work.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What is the Purpose of Chandrayaan?

The main purpose of all three Chandrayaan missions is to collect information regarding various chemicals and natural elements on the moon’s surface.

  • Was Chandrayaan 1 Successful?

Indeed, Chandrayaan 1 ended prematurely but achieved remarkable success during its operational period.

  • What Happened to Chandrayaan 2?

There occurred some issues due to higher thrust generated by the five engines of the lander, the limitation of software to detect errors, and the landing site being too small.


Every person works hard to achieve success in their life. It is a proud moment for every Indian right now. So, pray for the most promising results and hope for the best. With the help of this mission, India will collect a lot of information about the various aspects of the moon.

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